History of military operations abroad


MONUA – The United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (1997–1999)

In the UN Observer Missions UNAVEM I, II and III in the territory of Angola, succeeded by follow-on mission MONUA, the Army of the Slovak Republic was represented by three to five members who had served in the mission since 1993. The mission ended in March 1999. The total number of the troops of the Army of the Slovak Republic who served in all observer missions in Angola was 36; they gained valuable experience while working in the international staffs, in cooperation with humanitarian and other international organisations, and participating within programmes for the disarmament of warring parties.

UN website – UNAVEM I
UN website – UNAVEM II
UN website – UNAVEM III
UN website – MONUA

Unit commanders:
  • Lt. Col. Ing. Ladislav KRUPA, December 1992 – April 1994
  • Col. MUDr. Jozef HAZUCHA, April 1994 – April 1995
  • Lt. Col. Jozef KOTLÁR, April 1995 – April 1996
  • Lt. Col. Miroslav ŠOTER, April 1995 – March 1997
  • Lt. Col. Miroslav HRUŠKA, March 1997 – March 1998
  • Lt. Col. Miroslav ŠOTER, May 1998 – March 1999

UNPROFOR – The United Nations Protection Force in the former Yugoslavia (1992–1995)
UNTAES in Croatia – The United Nations Transitional Authority in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (1996–1998)

Since May 1993, the Engineer Battalion of the Army of the Slovak Republic, made up of 606 troops and equipped with more than 400 pieces of equipment, had served in the UNPROFOR mission. Its role was to provide engineer support to international units in all sectors of the mission in the territory of Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Their principal task was to carry out mine clearance, road repair works and winter road maintenance, construct and renovate bridges, build camps and check points, and last but not least, to help local residents rebuild the war-torn infrastructures.
In January 1996, when the UNPROFOR mandate came to an end, the Engineer Battalion moved to the UNTAES mission in the territory of Eastern Slavonia (Croatia), where they continued performing the same tasks as in the UNPROFOR mission. The battalion was the last unit which left the mission area on 26 February 1998.

The Engineer Battalion members fulfilled 894 professional tasks among which, inter alia, they built 37 bridges, repaired 631 km of roads, destroyed more than 30 tons of ammunition of different types, and in terms of mine site security, they checked 363 km of roads and 1.998.305 square meters of areas. Their activities were highly appreciated by the authorities of the International Headquarters and the United Nations. They contributed significantly to an exemplary representation of the Slovak Republic abroad.

UNPROFOR and UNTAES unit commanders:
  • Lt. Col. Ing. Ľubomír KOLENČÍK, March 1993 – December 1994
  • Lt. Col. Ing. Daniel KOSTRA, December 1994 – August 1995
  • Lt. Col. Ing. Rostislav ŠMEHLÍK, August 1995 – September 1996
  • Lt. Col. Ing. Štefan JANGL, September 1996 – March 1998

UNOMIL – The United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (1993–1997)

In 1993–1994, ten members of the Army of the Slovak Republic served in the UNOMIL mission. The Slovak soldiers participated in the investigation of violation of humanitarian law and in the supervision of elections in Liberia.  They monitored the observance of agreements between the warring parties and the process of disarmament.

Unit commander:
  • Lt. Col. Ing. Dušan PANČÍK, November 1993 – October 1994
UN website - UNOMIL

UNOMUR in Uganda and Rwanda – The United Nations Observer Mission Uganda- Rwanda (1993 – 1994)

The members of the Army of the Slovak Republic monitored the ceasefire between the government forces and the rebels in the border zone between Uganda and Rwanda.

Unit commander:
  • Lt. Col. Ing. Daniel BAVOLÁR, November 1993 – August 1994
UN website - UNOMUR

UNAMIR in Rwanda – The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (1993 – 1996)

Following the agreements between the Rwandan Defence Forces and the troops of the so-called Rwandan Patriotic Front, the members of the Army of the Slovak Republic monitored the ceasefire. When the Tutsi genocide was successfully stopped, the Slovak troops participated in providing the humanitarian assistance to returnees.

  • Lt. Col. Ing. Daniel BAVOLÁR, November 1993 – October 1994
UN website - UNAMIR

SFOR (Stabilization Force), Bosnia and Herzegovina (1999–2003)

The primary mission of the SFOR was to ensure the stable and secure environment and to secure the implementation of political and military aspects of the Dayton Peace Agreement. The SFOR oversaw the observance of the Dayton Agreement, conducted inspections of weapon storehouses, provided support to international organisations active in the mission areas, helped federal authorities collect weapons and ammunition from local residents during the Operation Harvest and monitored potential threats of terrorist attacks.

  • Lt. Col. Ing. Karol PAPP, August 1998 – August 1999,
  • Lt. Col. Ľubomír MIČÁTEK, August 1999 – August 2000,
  • Lt. Col. MUDr. Mikuláš HUDÁK, August 2000 – August 2001,
  • Lt. Col. Ing. Daniel ZOLLER, August 2001 – August 2002,
  • Lt. Col. Ing. Slavomír MILAN, August 2002 – September 2003,
  • Lt. Col. Ing. Tibor TATÁR, September 2003 – September 2004,
  • Lt. Col. Ing. Ján BUDA, September 2004 – December 2005,
  • Lt. Col. Ing. Miroslav DEMKO, since December 2005
UN website – NATO SFOR

The OSCE Mission to Moldova (1993 –  )

The OSCE Mission to Moldova was established in 1993 in connection with the settlement of the armed conflict in its territory. Its goal is to create conditions for negotiations between conflicting parties, to promote the political settlement of the conflict and to stabilise the situation in an effort to assert the sovereignty of the Republic of Moldova with due respect to the particularities of the Transdniestrian region. The members of the Army of the Slovak Republic and the Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic served in the mission from 1998 to 2002.

OSCE website – Mission to Moldova 

The OSCE Kosovo Verification Mission (1998–2001)

The goal of the OSCE Kosovo Verification Mission was to verify observance of the UN Security Council resolution No. 1199. On 16 December 1998, the National Council of the Slovak Republic endorsed the deployment of the members of the Army of the SR to the mission. In 1999, the Army of the SR had four its members in the mission, and in 2000, two members.

Unit commanders:
  • Capt. Ing. Adrián MELEGA (2000 - 2001)
  • Capt. Ing. Iva MIELCOVÁ (1998 - 2000)
OSCE website –  KOSOVO Mission 

The OSCE Verification Mission in Albania (1999)

On 1 June 1999, the National Council of the Slovak Republic endorsed the deployment of the Engineer Unit of the Army of the Slovak Republic, with the total number of 40 members, to the NATO humanitarian support operation in Albania known as Allied Harbour in Albania. The unit moved to the operation area on 15 July 1999 and performed the tasks in favour of the AFOR forces within the Belgian contingent. Their principal task was to build and maintain camps and to repair the major supply routes. Since 7 August 1999 the unit of the Army of the SR was put under the command of the Italian contingent.

NATO Command terminated the humanitarian operation AFOR as of 31 August 1999 and the unit of the Army of the SR ceased its activities in Albania. Those units which stayed in the territory of the Republic of Albania beyond that period and continued their activities were put under the command of the KFOR Force Command.
The Engineer Unit of the Army of the Slovak Republic in the AFOR mission was historically the first organic unit of our armed forces engaged in the NATO-led peacekeeping operation.

NATO AFOR website 

NATO KFOR – Engineer units (1999 - 2002)

Since September 1999 the Slovak Engineer Unit which had operated in the AFOR mission moved to Kosovo and became part of KFOR. The unit had its base in Casablanca camp near Suva Reka in German sector.

By March 2002 the members of the unit had repaired roads and other communications, carried out mine clearance works and built several civil structures which serve the local residents.

AFOR and KFOR unit commanders:
  • Maj. Ing. Ján JURKENÍK, July 1999 – September 1999,
  • Lt.Col. Ing. Ondřej NOVOSAD, September 1999 – September 2000,
  • Maj. Ing. Miroslav ČIČMAN, September 2000 – September 2001,
  • Lt.Col. Ing. Štefan IVAN, September 2001 – march 2002

UNGCI – The United Nations Guard Contingent in IRAQ (1991 - 2003)

The UNGCI mission was established under the Memorandum of Understanding between the UN and the Government of Iraq to protect humanitarian workers and to create safe environment for Kurds and Shiites. The members of the Army of the SR and the Armed Forces of the SR served in the mission until February 2003.

Unit commanders:
  • Lt.Col. Mgr. Ján CHOVAN, August 2000 – August 2001,
  • Lt.Col. Luděk HAUERLAND, August 2001 – February 2003
For more information see UN website

UNMEE – The United Nations Missions in Ethiopia and Eritrea (2000 - 2004)

The main goal of the peacekeeping mission conducted under the UN resolution No. 1312 and 1320 of 2000 was to support the peace process and the normalisation of relations between Ethiopia and Eritrea. The Slovak troops joined the mission and were dislocated in Eritrea in January 2001. Our Engineer Unit comprised up to 200 men and was part of the four-thousand-member contingent made up of troops from 45 countries. The main camp of the first Slovak unit on the African continent lay by the town of Adi Quala, and the others near Baranta, Gergera and Assela.

The principal task of the Slovak troops was to carry out mine clearance works, to repair and build roads and fords, to strengthen land surfaces and to carry out other building and engineer works.
UNMEE unit commanders:
  • Lt.Col. Ing. Ján PÁLENÍK, December 2000 – December 2001
  • Lt.Col. Ing. Jaroslav VALKO, December 2001 – June 2002
  • Lt.Col. Ing. Miroslav ČIČMAN, June 2002 – June 2003
  • Lt.Col. Ing. Radislav JELÍNEK, June 2003 – July 2004
UN website - Mission UNMEE 

UNMISET – The United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (2001 – 2003)

Under the mandate of the UN Secretary General No. DPKO/MILAD/200149 of 15 February 2001, the Government of the Slovak Republic in its resolution No. 435 of 157th meeting of the Government of the SR dated 16 May 2001decided on the participation of the Army of the SR in the peacekeeping mission in Eastern Timor – UNTAET, and on 12 June 2001, the National Council of the Slovak Republic endorsed the participation in the mission. On 5 July 2001, the military field hospital was sent to Eastern Timor to be deployed to the city of Suai.

UN website - Mission UNMISET 

Mission Enduring Freedom, Kuwait (2003)

The National Council of the Slovak Republic, at its meeting held on 6 February 2003, approved by sending a 75-member radiation, chemical and biological protection company to the Persian Gulf the participation of Slovakia in the international coalition forces determined to enforce the implementation of the UN Security Council resolution. The total number of 74 members of the Armed Forces of the SR operated from the beginning of March 2003 to 13 June 2003 at Camp Doha in Kuwait within the 1st Czech and Slovak Radiation, Chemical and Biological Protection Battalion. 

NATO – SFOR (Stabilisation Forces), Bosnia and Herzegovina (2002–2003)

18.619 soldiers from the NATO member states and 1.638 from 17 non-member states (Albania, Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Estonia, Finland, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Morocco, New Zealand, Austria, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Sweden) participated in the operation SFOR in the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.  The broad international participation in the SFOR reflected the effort of the international community to create preconditions for stabilisation of the situation in the region.

Under the UN Security Council resolution No. 1088 of 12 December 1996 the Stabilisation Force (SFOR) as a legal successor to the Implementation Force (IFOR – NATO peace support operation launched on 16 December 1995 by decision of the North Atlantic Council and the UN Security Council resolution No. 1031) was charged with implementing the military aspects of the Peace Agreement. Likewise IFOR, SFOR operated under Chapter VII (peace enforcement) of the UN Charter.

The role of the SFOR was to forestall armed conflicts and unrests, to prevent intimidation of citizens and to contribute to creating conditions for the implementation of civil aspects of the peace agreement. The aim was to promote the stabilization of situation in the region, the return of refugees and displaced people, to promote the measures in the field of public security, the introduction of democratic practices and procedures for civilian control in the armed forces.

Deployment of the helicopter unit of the Army of the Slovak Republic to the Multinational Division Southwest as an integral part of the NATO-led peace support operation SFOR had significant international political dimension and was in accord with foreign policy and security orientation of the Slovak Republic. The participation of the Army of the Slovak Republic in the region supported the peace process in the Balkans, strengthened position of Slovakia among the concerned countries and prompted positive formation of quality relations with the NATO member states. Given the envisaged development and time horizon for building the enduring peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina , the expansion of the participation in the operation SFOR equalized not only the position of the Slovak Republic in consultations and preparation of decisions on the future involvement of the international community in the peace process in this country, but also it created an opportunity to contribute to the application of a strategy focused on strengthening the influence of European countries in addressing security problems of the contingent.

A significant benefit accrued from the participation of the Army of the Slovak Republic in the operation SFOR lies in the fact that this was the first deployment of the air force unit to the peacekeeping operation thanks to which the entire Air Force gained valuable experience in operational planning for sending out the troops and activities of their units in the peace support operations.

SFOR website

Operation CONCORDIA, Macedonia (2003)

On 31 March 2003, the European Union took over the mission, now called CONCORDIA, upon the agreement with NATO which as of that date ended its participation in the mission. On 10 April 2003, the National Council approved the participation of one member of the Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic in the mission in Macedonia.

UNAMSIL – The United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (1999 – 2005)

Since 1999, two members of the Slovak Republic served in the mission. The goal of the mission was to supervise the implementation of the peace agreement between the Government of Sierra Leone and the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), to monitor the military and security situation in the country, the observance of human rights and the process of demilitarisation and demobilisation. The task of demobilisation was fulfilled. Our observers took active part in collecting information in terrain, its processing and assessing, they also participated in the comprehensive assessment of military threats, collection of data on diamond mining and trade and in the development of final document.

Over the course of 2005, the military members were handing over their responsibilities and competencies to the military force department and state administration of Sierra Leone. In 2005, the mission kept only the rapid response unit dislocated in the area of the capital.

Unit commanders:
  • Maj. PaedDr. Jaroslav HORVÁTH, August 1999 – August 2000
  • pplk. Ing. Miroslav DOBRODENKA, August 2000 – August 2001
  • Maj. Ing. Peter PEŤOVSKÝ, August 2001 – August 2002
  • Lt.Col. Ing. Miroslav ŠOTER, August 2002 – August 2004
  • Lt.Col. Miroslav DOBRODENKA, August 2004 – February 2005
  • Capt. Ing. Juraj SEPEŠI, February 2005 – December 2005
UN website – UNAMSIL 

Operation Enduring Freedom, Afghanistan (2002 – 2005)

The Operation Enduring Freedom is designed to help restore the peaceful life in Afghanistan ravaged for decades by war and to eliminate the activities of terrorist organisations and to destroy their bases in towns and remote massive mountain ranges.

The first part of Slovak engineers and experts in maintenance and restoration of airports flew to Afghanistan on 19 August 2002. The main task of our engineers was to restore the airport near the town of Bagram. In direct cooperation with American and Italian troops they participated in the reconstruction and re-building of take-off and landing areas. The Slovak camp was part of the international military base which lay at the airport. The troops of the Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic, with few exceptions, worked with equipment they brought from the home country.
Our participation in the operation Enduring Freedom had the utmost importance in terms of the international political acceptation and the political security prestige in the fight against terrorism.
Under the resolution of the National Council of the Slovak Republic No. 2004 of 14 December 2005 and by prior arrangements with NATO, the 40-member unit was relocated from the US-led coalition operation Enduring Freedom to the NATO-led operation ISAF and united with the engineer-mine clearance unit, already engaged in the operation, into the multifunctional engineer company of the Kabul Multinational Brigade.

Enduring Freedom unit commanders:
  • Lt.Col. Ing. Ján DURMIS, August 2002 – September 2003
  • Lt.Col. Ing. Ján TRUSKA, September 2003 – October 2004
  • Maj. Ing. Vladimír KUCHÁR, October 2004 – December 2005
Operation Enduring Freedom website 

Operation Iraqi Freedom, Iraq (2003 – 2007)

The National Council of the Slovak Republic, on 19 June 2003, endorsed the participation of the Engineer Unit of the Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic in the Operation Iraqi Freedom.  It was the UN Security Council resolution of May which constituted the international and legal basis for sending out the military unit and invited all the member states to actively participate in the restoration and reconstruction of Iraq.

The Slovak contingent operated within the stabilisation forces in Iraq in Polish sector between Bagdad and Basra. The company was directly subordinate to the headquarters of the Multinational Division made up of the armed forces members from 21 states. The unit was charged with mine clearance, pyrotechnic works, and disposal of weapons and ammunition in the territory of Iraq.

Iraqi Freedom unit commanders:
  • Lt. Col. Ondřej NOVOSAD, July 2003 – January 2004
  • Lt. Col. Karol NAVRÁTIL, February 2004 – August 2004
  • Lt. Col. Anton SLÁDEČEK, August 2004 – March 2005
  • Lt. Col. Daniel ZMEKO, March 2005 – August 2005
  • Lt. Col. Ing. Ivan PÁNIS, August 2005 – February 2006
  • Lt. Col. Ing. Martin MICHALKO, February 2006 – September 2006
  • Maj. Ing. Miroslav GARDLO, September 2006 – February 2007
Multinational Division website 

EU supporting action to African Union (AU) Mission (AMIS II) in Sudan/Darfur

The Slovak Republic participated in the efforts of the European Union to support the African Union in Sudan/Darfur, under the resolution of the Government of the Slovak Republic No. 927 of 23 November 2005.

The conflict in Darfur began in early 2003, primarily due to dissatisfaction with the distribution of economic resources in the country. The role of the Chief Mediator in finding a political solution to the conflict was taken over by the African Union (AU), which on 28 May 2004, decided to deploy the observer mission (AMIS) to Darfur, charged with the task of overseeing the observance of the Ceasefire Agreement of April 2004. The UN Security Council in its resolution No. 1556 of 30 July 2004 endorsed the deployment of the international observers in Darfur led by the AU and invited the UN member states to join.

The Slovak Republic was represented in the mission by two professional soldiers assigned to the observer teams in Sector 3 – El Genaina.

The Slovak Republic´s contribution to the EU actions to support the African Union mission AMIS II in Sudan/Darfur included the following:
  • Financial contribution through the ATHENA mechanism by which the Slovak Republic participated in common costs of the military component of the action (according to Article No. 11 of Joint Action)
  • Deployment of two members of the Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic as military observers within the EU actions for an unlimited period since May 2006; the observers were authorised to operate within the entire territory of Sudan in a 6-month rotation period.
Under the resolution of the Government of the Slovak Republic No. 94 of 15 November 2006, the Government of the Slovak Republic approved the termination of the deployment of the Slovak Armed Forces members to the peace support operation of the African Union AMIS II in Darfur, Sudan.


Unit commander:
  • Capt. Pavol CISÁRIK, May 2006 – November 2006


UNDOF – The United Nations Disengagement Observer Force

In accordance with the agreement concluded between the Syrian Arab Republic and the State of Israel on disengagement of the Israeli and Syrian forces, the UNDOF mission ensures the observation, patrolling and monitoring of the regime in the separation zone, which was created by disengagement of the military forces of the warring parties.

Slovak troops operated in the mission since 1998. They performed tasks within the organisational integration into the Austrian Battalion AUSBATT. Being integrated into the Austrian Battalion, the Slovak 3rd Company carried out tasks of the seven permanent positions within the area of 58 square km. The tasks were carried out by dispatching day foot patrols, day and night motor patrols and special night patrols to order to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of the task performance. The 3rd Company continuously dispatched rapid response patrol and rapid response team to take actions against violations and to protect forces and resources of the UN troops. The aim of patrolling was to survey situations in designated areas and potential violation of international treaties on visual distance.

On 5 – 12 June 2005, the operational role and the area of responsibility were transferred to the members of the Croatian Army.
Unit commanders:
  • Capt. Ing. Rastislav Rašla, May 1998 – May 1999
  • Capt. Ing. Ivan Kováč, May  1999 – November 1999
  • Lt.Col. Ing. Ivan Verbich, November 1999 – May 2000
  • Maj. Ing. Ivan Bačík, May 2000 – May 2001
  • Lt.Col. Ing. Peter Čižmárik, May 2001 – May 2002
  • Maj. Ing. Peter Švrlo, May 2002 – June 2003
  • Maj. Ing. Ľubomír Kochanský, June 2003 – June 2004
  • Lt.Col. Ing. Ján Tománek, June 2004 – October 2005
  • Maj. Ing. Vojtech MOJZES, October 2005 – July 2006
  • Maj. Ing. Juraj Farkaš, July 2006 – June 2007
  • Maj. Ing. Vladimír Grišlo, June 2007 – December 2007
  • Lt.Col. Ing. Jozef FIGURA, December 2007 – June 2008

Participation of the Slovak troops in the missions within the Czechoslovak Federal Army:
  • NNSC – Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission for Korea (1953–1993)
  • UN observer mission in Somalia UNOSOM – United Nations Protection in Somalia (1992–1993)
  • UN peacekeeping mission in the former Yugoslavia UNPROFOR – United Nations Protection Force (1992–1995)

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